A laboratory carboy is a thicc plastic jar with handles. Sometimes it has a spigot. Lab carboys are manufactured in several sizes (from 5 to 50 liters) and are typically one of two types of plastic (polypropylene or high-density polyethylene).
That’s pretty much it. Lab carboys aren’t complicated. You use them to store liquids, like solvents and stuff. Not Gatorade.
"Carboy" is a funny word, but it’s apparently from the Arabic term qarābah, meaning "big jug." Cool.